/*====================================== Theme Name: Rubine Lite Theme URI: https://themezee.com/themes/rubine/ Description: Rubine Lite is a clean and retina-ready magazine theme created with usability and simplicity in mind. The theme offers a gorgeous featured content area on the home page to highlight your most important posts. Of course the design is fully responsive and makes your content readable on every device. Version: 1.3.3 Author: ThemeZee Author URI: https://themezee.com Tags: two-columns, custom-background, custom-colors, custom-header, custom-menu, grid-layout, blog, news, editor-style, rtl-language-support, featured-image-header, featured-images, flexible-header, full-width-template, sticky-post, threaded-comments, translation-ready, theme-options, one-column, left-sidebar, right-sidebar, three-columns, four-columns Text Domain: rubine-lite License: GNU General Public License v2.0 License URI: http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html ======================================*/ /* CSS Reset | http://meyerweb.com/eric/tools/css/reset/ | v2.0 -------------------------------------------------------------- */ html, body, div, span, applet, object, iframe, h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6, p, blockquote, pre, a, abbr, acronym, address, big, cite, code, del, dfn, em, img, ins, kbd, q, s, samp, small, strike, strong, sub, sup, tt, var, b, u, i, center, dl, dt, dd, ol, ul, li, fieldset, form, label, legend, table, caption, tbody, tfoot, thead, tr, th, td, article, aside, canvas, details, embed, figure, figcaption, footer, header, hgroup, menu, nav, output, ruby, section, summary, time, mark, audio, video { margin: 0; padding: 0; border: 0; font-size: 100%; font: inherit; vertical-align: baseline; } /* HTML5 display-role reset for older browsers */ article, aside, details, figcaption, figure, footer, header, hgroup, menu, nav, section { display: block; } body { line-height: 1; } ol, ul { list-style: none; } blockquote, q { quotes: none; } blockquote:before, blockquote:after, q:before, q:after { content: ''; content: none; } table { border-collapse: collapse; border-spacing: 0; } /* General Styles -------------------------------------------------------------- */ html { font-size: 100.01%; } body { font-family: 'Carme', Tahoma, Verdana, Arial; font-size: 0.95em; border: 0; color: #111; background-color: #f3f3f3; } /* Links */ a, a:link, a:visited{ color: #cc1111; text-decoration: underline; } a:hover, a:active { text-decoration: none; } /* Form Elements */ input, textarea { padding: 0.7em; background: #fff; border: 1px solid #e5e5e5; font-size: 1.0em; color: #222; font-family: 'Carme', Tahoma, Verdana, Arial; } input[type="submit"] { color: #222; font-weight: bold; padding: 0.3em 1em; background: #f8f8f8; border: 1px solid #e5e5e5; -webkit-transition: all 0.2s ease; -moz-transition: all 0.2s ease; -o-transition: all 0.2s ease; -ms-transition: all 0.2s ease; transition: all 0.2s ease; } input[type="submit"]:hover { color: #cc1111; background: #fff; border: 1px solid #cc1111; box-shadow: inset 0.3em 0 0 #cc1111; cursor: pointer; } /* Clearing Floats */ .clearfix:before, .clearfix:after { content: " "; display: table; } .clearfix:after { clear: both; } .clearfix { *zoom: 1; /* For IE 6/7 only */ } /* Make Form Elements responsive */ input, textarea, select { max-width: 100%; } /* Text meant only for screen readers. */ .screen-reader-text { clip: rect(1px, 1px, 1px, 1px); position: absolute !important; height: 1px; width: 1px; overflow: hidden; } .screen-reader-text:focus { background-color: #f1f1f1; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 2px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.6); clip: auto !important; color: #21759b; display: block; font-size: 14px; font-size: 0.875rem; font-weight: bold; height: auto; left: 5px; line-height: normal; padding: 15px 23px 14px; text-decoration: none; top: 5px; width: auto; z-index: 100000; /* Above WP toolbar. */ } /* Basic Structure -------------------------------------------------------------- */ #wrapper { width: 100%; } #header-wrap { background: #cc1111; } #header { padding: 2em 0; color: #fff; } #wrap { clear: both; padding: 2em 0 0; -webkit-box-sizing: border-box; -moz-box-sizing: border-box; box-sizing: border-box; } #content { float: left; width: 72%; padding-right: 2em; -webkit-box-sizing: border-box; -moz-box-sizing: border-box; box-sizing: border-box; } #sidebar { float: right; width: 28%; -webkit-box-sizing: border-box; -moz-box-sizing: border-box; box-sizing: border-box; } .container { max-width: 1340px; width: 92%; margin: 0 auto; -webkit-box-sizing: border-box; -moz-box-sizing: border-box; box-sizing: border-box; } /* Header -------------------------------------------------------------- */ #logo { float: left; margin: 0.6em 0; max-width: 100%; } #logo .site-title { display: inline-block; font-size: 2.5em; font-weight: bold; color: #fff; font-family: 'Francois One', Tahoma, Verdana, Arial; } #logo .site-title a:link, #logo .site-title a:visited { color: #fff; text-decoration: none; } #logo .site-title a:hover, #logo .site-title a:active { color: #eee; text-decoration: none; } #logo .site-description { margin-top: 0.4em; color: #ddd; } #logo .custom-logo { margin: 0 1.5em 0 0; padding: 0; border: none; vertical-align: top; max-width: 100%; height: auto; } /* Custom Header Image */ #custom-header-image { padding-top: 2em; } #custom-header-image img { max-width: 1320px; vertical-align: top; width: 100%; height: auto; padding: 0.8em; background: #fff; border: 1px solid #e5e5e5; -webkit-box-sizing: border-box; -moz-box-sizing: border-box; box-sizing: border-box; } /* Top Navigation Menu -------------------------------------------------------------- */ #topheader-wrap { background: rgba(0,0,0,0.25); } #topheader #header-search { float: right; } #topnav-toggle { display: none; } .top-navigation-menu { float: left; list-style-type: none; list-style-position: outside; position: relative; } .top-navigation-menu li{ float: left; position: relative; } .top-navigation-menu a { display: block; padding: 0.8em 1em; text-decoration: none; font-size: 0.8em; text-transform: uppercase; } .top-navigation-menu a:link, .top-navigation-menu a:visited{ color: #fff; text-decoration: none; } .top-navigation-menu a:hover { background: rgba(0,0,0,0.2); } .top-navigation-menu li.current_page_item a, .top-navigation-menu li.current-menu-item a { text-decoration: underline; } .top-navigation-menu li .sub-menu { display: none !important; } /* Navigation Menu -------------------------------------------------------------- */ #mainnav-toggle { display: none; } #mainnav-wrap { background: #f8f8f8; border-bottom: 1px solid #e5e5e5; } #mainnav { position: relative; } .main-navigation-menu { float: left; list-style-type: none; list-style-position: outside; } .main-navigation-menu li{ float:left; border-right: 1px solid #eaeaea; } .main-navigation-menu a { display: block; padding: 1.3em; text-decoration: none; font-size: 1.0em; font-family: 'Carme', Tahoma, Verdana, Arial; font-weight: bold; } .main-navigation-menu a:link, .main-navigation-menu a:visited { color: #222; text-decoration: none; } .main-navigation-menu a:hover { background: #fff; } .main-navigation-menu ul { position: absolute; display: none; z-index: 99; background: #fff; margin-left: -1px; padding: 1px; border: 1px solid #ddd; } .main-navigation-menu ul li{ float: none; position: relative; border: none; } .main-navigation-menu ul a { min-width: 250px; min-width: 16rem; padding: 1em; font-weight: normal; -webkit-box-sizing: border-box; -moz-box-sizing: border-box; box-sizing: border-box; } .main-navigation-menu ul a:link, .main-navigation-menu ul a:visited { color: #333; font-size: 0.9em; text-decoration: none; } .main-navigation-menu ul a:hover { background: #f8f8f8; } .main-navigation-menu li ul ul { margin: -2px 0 0; top: 0; left: 100%; } .main-navigation-menu li.menu-item-has-children:hover > ul, .main-navigation-menu li.page_item_has_children:hover > ul, .main-navigation-menu li.menu-item-has-children[aria-expanded="true"] > ul { display: block; } .main-navigation-menu li.current_page_item a, .main-navigation-menu li.current-menu-item a { text-decoration: underline; } .main-navigation-menu li.current_page_item ul li a, .main-navigation-menu li.current-menu-item ul li a{ text-decoration: none; } .main-navigation-menu ul li.current_page_item a, .main-navigation-menu ul li.current-menu-item a { text-decoration: underline; } .main-navigation-menu ul li.current_page_item ul li a, .main-navigation-menu ul li.current-menu-item ul li a{ text-decoration: none; } /* Mega Menu Styling */ .mega-menu-content { line-height: 1.5; } .mega-menu-content .mega-menu-widget .mega-menu-widget-header-title { font-weight: bold; } .main-navigation-menu .mega-menu-content .mega-menu-widget ul li a:hover, .main-navigation-menu .mega-menu-content .mega-menu-widget ul li a:active { text-decoration: underline; background: none; } .main-navigation-menu .mega-menu-content .widget_meta ul li, .main-navigation-menu .mega-menu-content .widget_pages ul li, .main-navigation-menu .mega-menu-content .widget_categories ul li, .main-navigation-menu .mega-menu-content .widget_archive ul li { display: block; } .main-navigation-menu .mega-menu-content .widget_meta ul li a, .main-navigation-menu .mega-menu-content .widget_pages ul li a, .main-navigation-menu .mega-menu-content .widget_categories ul li a, .main-navigation-menu .mega-menu-content .widget_archive ul li a { display: block; padding: 0.75em 1em; font-size: 14px; font-size: 0.875rem; } .main-navigation-menu .mega-menu-content .widget_meta ul li a:hover, .main-navigation-menu .mega-menu-content .widget_pages ul li a:hover, .main-navigation-menu .mega-menu-content .widget_categories ul li a:hover, .main-navigation-menu .mega-menu-content .widget_archive ul li a:hover { text-decoration: none; background: #f8f8f8; } /* Widget Styling -------------------------------------------------------------- */ .widget { margin-bottom: 2em; padding: 1.5em; background: #fff; border: 1px solid #e5e5e5; -ms-word-wrap: break-word; word-wrap: break-word; } .widgettitle { font-size: 1.0em; font-weight: bold; font-family: 'Carme', Tahoma, Verdana, Arial; padding: 1em; margin: -1.5em -1.5em 1.5em -1.5em; color: #333; background: #f8f8f8; border-bottom: 1px solid #e5e5e5; line-height: 1.5em; } .widget .textwidget { line-height: 1.5em; } .widget .textwidget p { margin-bottom: 1em; } .widget ul { line-height: 1.5em; } .widget ul { list-style: circle inside; color: #555; } .widget ul .children { padding: 0; margin: 0.5em 0 0.5em 1em; } .widget a:link, .widget a:visited { text-decoration: none; color: #cc1111; } .widget a:hover, .widget a:active { text-decoration: underline; } .widget img { max-width: 100%; height: auto; } /* Custom Widgets -------------------------------------------------------------- */ /* Theme Calendar Widget */ #wp-calendar { margin: 0; width: 100%; color: #444; line-height: 1.6em; } #wp-calendar th, #wp-calendar td, #wp-calendar caption { text-align: left; } #wp-calendar caption { font-style: italic; margin-bottom: 0.1em; } #wp-calendar th { font-weight: bold; font-size: 0.85em; } #wp-calendar tfoot tr td { padding-top: 0.5em; } #wp-calendar #next { padding-right: 0.8em; text-align: right; } /* Posts and Pages -------------------------------------------------------------- */ .type-post, .type-page, .type-attachment { margin: 0 0 2em 0; border: 1px solid #e5e5e5; background: #fff; } .type-post .post-content, .type-page, .type-attachment { padding: 1.2em 1.6em 1.6em; background: #fff; } .type-post { background: #f8f8f8; } .post-content { border-top: 1px solid #e5e5e5; } /* Titles */ .page-title, .entry-title { font-family: 'Francois One', Tahoma, Verdana, Arial; color: #cc1111; line-height: 1.4em; -ms-word-wrap: break-word; word-wrap: break-word; text-decoration: none; } .page-title { font-size: 2.4em; } .entry-title { font-size: 2.2em; } .entry-title a:link, .entry-title a:visited { color: #cc1111; text-decoration: none; } .entry-title a:hover span, .entry-title a:active span { text-decoration: underline; } .entry-title .subtitle { color: #777; font-family: 'Carme', Tahoma, Verdana, Arial; font-weight: normal; font-size: 0.55em; line-height: 1.3em; margin-bottom: 0.3em; } .entry-title a:hover .subtitle, .entry-title a:active .subtitle { text-decoration: underline; } .sticky { border-left: 8px solid #e5e5e5; } /* Page Links | wp_link_pages() */ .page-links { margin: 0; word-spacing: 1em; } /* Postmeta */ .entry-meta-wrap { padding: 1em 0.6em; } .entry-meta { line-height: 1.5em; font-size: 1.0em; } .entry-meta span { display: inline-block; padding: 0 0.6em; } .entry-meta a:link, .entry-meta a:visited { color: #333; } .entry-meta span:before { display: inline-block; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; font: normal 24px 'Genericons'; vertical-align: top; color: #333; margin: 0 0.2em -0.2em 0; } .entry-meta .meta-date:before{ content: '\f307'; } .entry-meta .meta-author:before{ content: '\f304'; } .entry-meta .meta-comments:before{ content: '\f300'; } .entry-meta .meta-category:before{ content: '\f301'; } .entry-meta .meta-tags:before{ content: '\f302'; } /* Archive Post Layout */ .archive-post.has-post-thumbnail .post-content { border-top: none; margin-left: 33%; border-left: 1px solid #e5e5e5; width: 67%; -webkit-box-sizing: border-box; -moz-box-sizing: border-box; box-sizing: border-box; } .archive-post.has-post-thumbnail .entry-meta-wrap { float: left; width: 33%; padding: 0.8em 0.8em 0; -webkit-box-sizing: border-box; -moz-box-sizing: border-box; box-sizing: border-box; } .archive-post.has-post-thumbnail .entry-meta { margin-top: 1em; } .archive-post.has-post-thumbnail .entry-meta span { display: block; padding: 0.3em 0; } /* Post Tags */ .meta-tags { margin-top: 0.8em; } .meta-tags ul { float: left; } .meta-tags ul li { float: left; margin: 0.3em 0.3em 0 0; } .meta-tags ul li strong { line-height: 2em; margin-right: 0.5em; } .meta-tags ul li a { display: inline-block; font-size: 0.9em; font-weight: bold; padding: 0.5em 1em; background: #f8f8f8; border: 1px solid #e5e5e5; -webkit-transition: all 0.2s ease; -moz-transition: all 0.2s ease; -o-transition: all 0.2s ease; -ms-transition: all 0.2s ease; transition: all 0.2s ease; } .meta-tags ul li a:link, .meta-tags ul li a:visited { color: #222; text-decoration: none; } .meta-tags ul li a:hover, .meta-tags ul li a:active{ color: #cc1111; background: #fff; border: 1px solid #cc1111; box-shadow: inset 0.3em 0 0 #cc1111; } /* Read more Link */ .more-link { display: inline-block; font-weight: bold; margin: 0.3em 0 0; padding: 0.5em 1em; text-decoration: none; border: 1px solid #e5e5e5; background: #f8f8f8; -webkit-transition: all 0.2s ease; -moz-transition: all 0.2s ease; -o-transition: all 0.2s ease; -ms-transition: all 0.2s ease; transition: all 0.2s ease; } .more-link:link, .more-link:visited { color: #222; text-decoration: none; } .more-link:hover, .more-link:active { color: #cc1111; background: #fff; border: 1px solid #cc1111; box-shadow: inset 0.3em 0 0 #cc1111; } /* Post Navigation */ .post-navigation { margin-bottom: 2em; padding: 1em; border: 1px solid #e5e5e5; color: #222; background: #fff; line-height: 1.5; } .post-navigation .nav-links:before, .post-navigation .nav-links:after { content: ""; display: table; } .post-navigation .nav-links:after { clear: both; } .post-navigation .nav-links .nav-previous { float: left; } .post-navigation .nav-links .nav-next { float: right; } /* Archives and Search Heading */ .archive-title { font-weight: bold; color: #222; padding: 1em; margin-bottom: 1em; border: 1px solid #e5e5e5; background: #f8f8f8; line-height: 1.5em; } .archive-description { margin: -1rem 0 1rem; padding: 1em; line-height: 1.6; background: #fff; border: 1px solid #e5e5e5; } /* Content Pagination */ .post-pagination { margin-bottom: 2em; font-weight: bold; color: #222; padding: 1em; border: 1px solid #e5e5e5; background: #f8f8f8; } .post-pagination a { padding: 0.2em 0.5em; margin-right: 0.3em; display: inline-block; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; color: #cc1111; } .post-pagination a:link, ..post-pagination a:visited { color: #cc1111; } .post-pagination a:hover { text-decoration: underline; } .post-pagination .current { padding: 0.2em 0.5em; margin-right: 0.3em; background: #cc1111; color: #fff; } /* Infinite Scroll Pagination */ .infinite-scroll .post-pagination { display: none; } .infinite-scroll #infinite-handle span { display: inline-block; margin-bottom: 2em; padding: 0.6em 1em; font-size: 1em; font-weight: bold; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; color: #fff; background: #cc1111; } .infinite-scroll #infinite-handle span:hover { background-color: #333; } /* Breadcrumbs */ .breadcrumbs { font-weight: bold; color: #222; padding: 1em; margin-bottom: 1em; border: 1px solid #e5e5e5; background: #f8f8f8; line-height: 1.5em; } .breadcrumbs .trail-browse, .breadcrumbs .trail-items, .breadcrumbs .trail-items li { display: inline; line-height: 1.5; } .breadcrumbs .trail-browse { margin-right: 0.5em; } .breadcrumbs .trail-items { list-style: none; } .breadcrumbs .trail-items li::after { content: "\00bb"; /* Raquo */ padding: 0 0.5em; } .trail-separator-slash .trail-items li::after { content: "\002F"; } .trail-separator-dash .trail-items li::after { content: "\2013"; } .trail-separator-bull .trail-items li::after { content: "\2022"; } .trail-separator-arrow-bracket .trail-items li::after { content: "\003e"; } .trail-separator-raquo .trail-items li::after { content: "\00bb"; } .trail-separator-single-arrow .trail-items li::after { content: "\2192"; } .trail-separator-double-arrow .trail-items li::after { content: "\21D2"; } .breadcrumbs .trail-items li:last-of-type::after { display: none; } /* Text Elements -------------------------------------------------------------- */ .entry { line-height: 1.6em; margin: 0; -ms-word-wrap: break-word; word-wrap: break-word; } .entry p, .comment p { margin: 0.75em 0; } .entry h1, .comment h1, .entry h2, .comment h2, .entry h3, .comment h3, .entry h4, .comment h4, .entry h5, .comment h5, .entry h6, .comment h6 { color: #222; font-weight: bold; line-height: 1.0em; margin: 1.2em 0 0.3em; } .entry h1, .comment h1 { font-size: 3.0em; } .entry h2, .comment h2 { font-size: 2.25em; } .entry h3, .comment h3 { font-size: 1.5em; } .entry h4, .comment h4 { font-size: 1.25em; } .entry h5, .comment h5 { font-size: 1.125em; margin: 1.3em 0 0; } .entry h6, .comment h6 { font-size: 1.0em; margin: 1.3em 0 0; } .entry ul, .comment ul{ list-style: square inside; margin: 0 0 1.5em 2em; } .entry ol, .comment ol{ list-style: decimal inside; margin: 0 0 1.5em 2em; } .entry ol ol, .comment ol ol{ list-style: upper-alpha inside; } .entry ol ol ol, .comment ol ol ol{ list-style: lower-roman inside; } .entry ol ol ol ol, .comment ol ol ol ol{ list-style: lower-alpha inside; } .entry ul ul, .comment ul ul, .entry ol ol, .comment ol ol, .entry ul ol, .comment ul ol .entry ol ul, .comment ol ul { margin-bottom: 0.2em; } dl { margin: 1em 0; } dt { font-weight: bold; } dd { margin-bottom: 1.5em; } strong { font-weight: bold; } cite, em, i { font-style: italic; } big, .big_tag { font-size: 1.3em; } ins { text-decoration: none; } code, pre { padding: 3px 8px; margin: 0 1px; background: #eeeeee; color: #222; font-size: 0.9em; font-family: Monospace, "Courier New", Courier; overflow: auto; line-height: 1.4em; } del, strike, s{ text-decoration: line-through; } pre { font-family: "Courier 10 Pitch", Courier, monospace; } small { font-size: 0.7em; } abbr, acronym { border-bottom: 1px dotted #666; cursor: help; } sup, sub { height: 0; line-height: 1; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; font-size: 0.8em; } sup { bottom: 1ex; } sub { top: .5ex; } .entry var, .entry kbd, .entry tt, .entry .tt_tag { font-size: 1.1em; font-family: "Courier 10 Pitch", Courier, monospace; } blockquote { background: #f8f8f8; border: 1px solid #e5e5e5; border-left: 8px solid #e5e5e5; margin: 1.2em 0; padding: 0.3em 1.2em; } blockquote cite { display: block; margin: 0.5em 0 0 0.5em; color: #777; } .entry table { border-collapse: collapse; border-spacing: 0; border: 1px solid #ddd; margin: 1em 0; text-align: left; width: 100%; } .entry tr th, .entry thead th { background: #e5e5e5; font-weight: bold; padding: 0.2em 1em; } .entry tr td { border-top: 1px solid #ddd; padding: 0.2em 1em; } .entry tr.alternate td { background: #f5f5f5; } /* Images | Gallery | Videos -------------------------------------------------------------- */ article .wp-post-image { max-width: 100%; margin: 0; height: auto; vertical-align: top; -webkit-box-sizing: border-box; -moz-box-sizing: border-box; box-sizing: border-box; } article .entry .wp-post-image { margin: 1.2em 2em 1em 0; height: auto; } .entry img { max-width: 100%; height: auto; } .wp-caption { max-width: 100%; height: auto; text-align: center; margin: 1em 0; } .wp-caption-text { margin: 0 !important; padding: 0; font-size: 0.9em; text-align: center; } .alignleft { float: left; display: inline; margin: 1em 2em 1em 0; } .alignright { float: right; display: inline; margin: 1em 0 1em 2em; } .aligncenter { margin: 1em auto; display: block; } /* Gallery Styling */ .gallery { margin: 1em auto !important; } .gallery-item { float: left; margin: 0.7em 0 0 0 !important; padding-right: 1em; -webkit-box-sizing: border-box; -moz-box-sizing: border-box; box-sizing: border-box; } .gallery img { margin: 0 !important; padding: 3px; border: 1px solid #e5e5e5 !important; -webkit-box-sizing: border-box; -moz-box-sizing: border-box; box-sizing: border-box; } .gallery-caption { margin-left: 0.3em !important; } /* Make Vidoes responsive */ embed, iframe, object, video { max-width: 100%; } /* Image.php Navigation */ #image-nav { margin: 1em 0 2em; color: #333; } #image-nav .nav-previous { float: left; } #image-nav .nav-next { float: right; } #image-nav .nav-previous a, #image-nav .nav-next a { font-size: 0.9em; font-weight: bold; text-decoration: none; padding: 0.5em 1em; text-decoration: none; color: #222; border: 1px solid #e5e5e5; background: #f5f5f5; background-image: -webkit-linear-gradient(#fdfdfd 0%, #e8e8e8 100%); background-image: -moz-linear-gradient(#fdfdfd 0%, #e8e8e8 100%); background-image: -o-linear-gradient(#fdfdfd 0%, #e8e8e8 100%); background-image: -ms-linear-gradient(#fdfdfd 0%, #e8e8e8 100%); background-image: linear-gradient(#fdfdfd 0%, #e8e8e8 100%); } #image-nav .nav-previous a:hover, #image-nav .nav-next a:hover { background: #f8f8f8; } /* Search Form -------------------------------------------------------------- */ .search-form { display: block; position: relative; width: 100%; margin: 0; padding: 0; overflow:hidden; } .search-form .screen-reader-text { display: none; } .search-form .search-field { display: inline-block; margin: 0; width: 100%; padding: 0.7em 45px 0.7em 0.7em; background: #fff; border: 1px solid #ddd; font-size: 1.0em; color: #333; -webkit-box-sizing: border-box; -moz-box-sizing: border-box; box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-appearance: none; } .search-form .search-submit { position: absolute; top: 0; right: 0; border: none; background: transparent; padding: 0.8em 0.7em 0 0; cursor: pointer; } .search-form .search-submit .genericon-search { display: inline-block; width: 24px; height: 24px; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; -moz-osx-font-smoothing: grayscale; font-size: 24px; line-height: 1; font-family: 'Genericons'; text-decoration: inherit; font-weight: normal; font-style: normal; vertical-align: text-bottom; color: #777; content: '\f400'; } .search-form .search-submit:hover .genericon-search { color: #333; } /* different style for searchform in topheader */ #topheader #header-search .search-form .search-field { padding: 0.5em 45px 0.5em 0.8em; background: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.05); border: none; font-size: 0.9em; color: #fff; border-left: 1px solid rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.08); border-right: 1px solid rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.08); min-width: 300px; } #topheader #header-search .search-form .search-submit { padding: 0.5em 0.4em 0 0; } #topheader #header-search .search-form .search-submit .genericon-search { width: 18px; height: 18px; font-size: 18px; color: #ddd; } #topheader #header-search .search-form .search-submit:hover .genericon-search { color: #fff; } /* Social Icons | based upon http://kovshenin.com/2014/social-menus-in-wordpress-themes/ -------------------------------------------------------------- */ .social-icons-menu { list-style-type: none; list-style-position: outside; line-height: 1em; } .social-icons-menu li { float: left; margin: 0 1px 0.2em 0; padding: 0; } .social-icons-menu li a { position: relative; display: inline-block; padding: 1em; background: rgba(0,0,0,0.2); text-decoration: none; } .social-icons-menu li a:before { display: inline-block; color: #eee; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; -moz-osx-font-smoothing: grayscale; font-size: 24px; line-height: 1; font-family: 'Genericons'; text-decoration: inherit; vertical-align: top; } .social-icons-menu li a:hover { text-decoration: none; background: rgba(0,0,0,0.4); } .social-icons-menu li a .screen-reader-text { display: none; } .social-icons-wrap .social-icons-hint { font-size: 0.8em; color: #eee; max-width: 300px; line-height: 1.2em; } /* Add Genericons */ .social-icons-menu li a:before { content: '\f408';} /* Default Icon */ .social-icons-menu li a[href*="codepen.io"]:before { content: '\f216'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="digg.com"]:before { content: '\f221'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="dribbble.com"]:before { content: '\f201'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="facebook.com"]:before { content: '\f204'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="flickr.com"]:before { content: '\f211'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="plus.google.com"]:before { content: '\f218'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="github.com"]:before { content: '\f200'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="instagram.com"]:before { content: '\f215'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="linkedin.com"]:before { content: '\f207'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="pinterest.com"]:before { content: '\f209'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="polldaddy.com"]:before { content: '\f217'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="getpocket.com"]:before { content: '\f224'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="reddit.com"]:before { content: '\f222'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="spotify.com"]:before { content: '\f515'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="skype.com"]:before, .social-icons-menu li a[href*="skype:"]:before { content: '\f220'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="stumbleupon.com"]:before { content: '\f223'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="tumblr.com"]:before { content: '\f214'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="twitch.tv"]:before { content: '\f516'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="twitter.com"]:before { content: '\f202'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="vimeo.com"]:before { content: '\f212'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="wordpress.org"]:before, .social-icons-menu li a[href*="wordpress.com"]:before { content: '\f205'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="youtube.com"]:before { content: '\f213'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="newsletter"]:before, .social-icons-menu li a[href*="mailto"]:before { content: '\f410'; } .social-icons-menu li a[href*="/feed"]:before, .social-icons-menu li a[href*="/feed/"]:before, .social-icons-menu li a[href*="?feed=rss2"]:before, .social-icons-menu li a[href*="feedburner.google.com"]:before, .social-icons-menu li a[href*="feedburner.com"]:before { content: '\f413'; } /* Header Social Icons */ #header-social-icons { float: right; } /* Footer Social Icons */ #footer-social-icons { float: right; } #footer-social-icons .social-icons-menu li { margin: 0; } #footer-social-icons .social-icons-menu li a { padding: 0.9em; background: none; } #footer-social-icons .social-icons-menu li a:before { color: #eee; font-size: 16px; } #footer-social-icons .social-icons-menu li a:hover { background: rgba(0,0,0,0.2); } /* Comments -------------------------------------------------------------- */ #comments { margin-bottom: 2em; } #comments .comments-title, #respond #reply-title { margin-bottom: 1em; padding: 1em; font-weight: bold; color: #222; border: 1px solid #e5e5e5; background: #f8f8f8; line-height: 1.5em; } #respond #reply-title { margin-bottom: 0; border-bottom: none; } .commentlist .comment .comment-reply-title { font-size: 1.0em; } /* Comment Listing */ .commentlist { display: block; } .commentlist .comment { list-style: none; margin-bottom: 2em; } .commentlist .comment .comment-body { display: block; background: #f8f8f8; border: 1px solid #e5e5e5; list-style: none; } .commentlist .comment .comment-content { margin-left: 33%; padding: 0.7em 1.2em 1.2em; width: 67%; border-left: 1px solid #e5e5e5; background: #fff; -webkit-box-sizing: border-box; -moz-box-sizing: border-box; box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1.5em; -ms-word-wrap: break-word; word-wrap: break-word; } .commentlist .comment .children { margin: 1.5em 0 0 1.5em; } .commentlist .comment .children .comment .comment-body { border-left: 0.5em solid #ddd; } .commentlist .comment .comment-meta { float: left; width: 33%; padding: 0.8em; -webkit-box-sizing: border-box; -moz-box-sizing: border-box; box-sizing: border-box; } .comment-meta .comment-author img { float: left; margin: 0 1em 0 0; } .comment-meta .comment-author img:after { clear: both; } .comment-meta .comment-author .fn { display: inline-block; font-size: 1.1em; font-weight: bold; margin: 0.3em 0 0.7em; } .comment-meta .comment-author .fn a:link, .comment-meta .comment-author .fn a:visited { text-decoration: underline; } .comment-meta .comment-author .fn a:hover, .comment-meta .comment-author .fn a:active { text-decoration: none; } .comment-meta .bypostauthor .fn, .comment-meta .comment-author-admin .fn{ font-style: italic; } .comment-meta .commentmetadata { font-size: 0.8em; } .comment-meta .commentmetadata p { margin: 0.4em 0; } .comment-meta .commentmetadata a:link, .comment-meta .commentmetadata a:visited, .comment-meta .commentmetadata a:active, .comment-meta .commentmetadata a:hover { color: #222; text-decoration: none; } .comment-content .comment-entry .comment-reply-link { display: inline-block; font-size: 0.9em; font-weight: bold; padding: 0.3em 1em; background: #f8f8f8; border: 1px solid #e5e5e5; -webkit-transition: all 0.2s ease; -moz-transition: all 0.2s ease; -o-transition: all 0.2s ease; -ms-transition: all 0.2s ease; transition: all 0.2s ease; } .comment-content .comment-entry .comment-reply-link:link, .comment-content .comment-entry .comment-reply-link:visited { color: #222; text-decoration: none; } .comment-content .comment-entry .comment-reply-link:hover, .comment-content .comment-entry .comment-reply-link:active { color: #cc1111; background: #fff; border: 1px solid #cc1111; box-shadow: inset 0.3em 0 0 #cc1111; } .nocomments { font-size: 0.9em; border: 1px solid #e5e5e5; background: #fff; padding: 0.2em 1em; } .commentlist .pingback { display: block; margin: 0.6em 0 0; padding: 0.8em 0 0; border-top: 1px solid #e5e5e5; list-style: none; line-height: 1.3em; } /* Comment Pagination */ .comment-pagination { font-size: 0.9em; border: 1px solid #e5e5e5; background: #fff; padding: 0.2em 1em; margin-bottom: 1em; } .comment-pagination .alignleft { float: left; } .comment-pagination .alignright { float: right; } /* Comment Form */ #respond { margin: 2em 0 0; background: #fff; } #commentform { margin: 0; padding: 1.5em 1.5em 0; border: 1px solid #e5e5e5; } #commentform p { margin: 0 0 1.5em; } #respond .must-log-in { padding: 1.5em; border: 1px solid #e5e5e5; } #commentform input[type="text"], #commentform textarea { display: inline-block; width: 100%; -webkit-box-sizing: border-box; -moz-box-sizing: border-box; box-sizing: border-box; } #commentform label { display: block; margin: 0.6em 0 0.2em; font-size: 0.9em; font-weight: bold; } #commentform #submit { display: block; margin: 1em 0 0; padding: 0.8em 4em; } /* Featured Content -------------------------------------------------------------- */ #featured-content-bg { background: #fff; padding-bottom: 0.5em; border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd; } #featured-content-wrap { clear: both; padding: 1.5em 0 0; } #featured-content { margin-right: -1em; } #featured-content .featured-post { float: left; padding-right: 1em; -webkit-box-sizing: border-box; -moz-box-sizing: border-box; box-sizing: border-box; width: 25%; } #featured-content .featured-post .type-post { margin-bottom: 1em; } #featured-content .featured-post:nth-child(4n + 1) { clear: left; } #featured-content .featured-post .featured-post-thumbnail { padding: 0.8em; border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd; -webkit-box-sizing: border-box; -moz-box-sizing: border-box; box-sizing: border-box; background: #f8f8f8; } #featured-content .featured-post .featured-post-content { padding: 0.8em 1em; background: #fff; } #featured-content .featured-post .entry-title { font-size: 1.05em; } #featured-content .featured-post .entry-title a:hover { text-decoration: underline; } /* Footer -------------------------------------------------------------- */ #footer-bg { background: #cc1111; } #footer-wrap { background: rgba(0,0,0,0.25); } #footer { color: #fff; } #footer a { color: #ddd; } #footer #footer-text { float: left; padding: 1.05em 0; font-size: 0.9em; } /*============================ MEDIA QUERIES ============================*/ /* Small screens | <1120px */ @media only screen and (max-width: 70em) { .container { width: 94%; } } /* Smaller screens | <1120px */ @media only screen and (max-width: 65em) { #featured-content .featured-post { width: 50%; } #featured-content .featured-post:nth-child(2n + 1) { clear: left; } .archive-post.has-post-thumbnail .post-content, .commentlist .comment .comment-content { margin-left: 0; border-left: none; border-top: 1px solid #e5e5e5; width: 100%; } .archive-post.has-post-thumbnail .entry-meta-wrap, .commentlist .comment .comment-meta { float: none; width: 100%; padding: 0.8em; } .archive-post.has-post-thumbnail .entry-meta-wrap .wp-post-image { float: left; margin-right: 2em; max-width: 50%; } .archive-post.has-post-thumbnail .entry-meta { margin-top: 0.5em; } .comment-meta .commentmetadata p { display: inline; padding: 0 0.4em; } } /* Tablets (landscape) | <960px */ @media only screen and (max-width: 60em) { .container { width: 100%; } #wrap, #custom-header-image { padding: 2em 2em 0; } #featured-content-wrap { padding: 1.5em 1.5em 0; } #header { padding: 2em; } #content { float: none; padding-right: 0; width: 100%; } #sidebar { clear: both; float: none; margin: 2em 0 0; width: 100%; } #logo { float: none; width: 100%; margin: 0; text-align: center; } #header-social-icons { float: none; text-align: center; margin-top: 1.5em; } #header-social-icons .social-icons-menu li { float: none; display: inline-block; margin: 0 -2px 2px 0; line-height: 1.5em; } .archive-post.has-post-thumbnail .post-content, .commentlist .comment .comment-content { margin-left: 33%; border-left: 1px solid #e5e5e5; border-top: none; width: 67%; } .archive-post.has-post-thumbnail .entry-meta-wrap, .commentlist .comment .comment-meta { float: left; width: 33%; padding: 0.8em 0.8em 0; } .archive-post.has-post-thumbnail .entry-meta-wrap .wp-post-image { float: none; margin-right: 0; max-width: 100%; } .archive-post.has-post-thumbnail .entry-meta { margin-top: 1em; } .comment-meta .commentmetadata p { display: block; padding: 0; } #footer { padding: 0 2em; } /* Mobile Top Navigation */ /* Reset */ #topnav-wrap, #topnav, .top-navigation-menu, .top-navigation-menu li, .top-navigation-menu a, .top-navigation-menu ul { margin: 0; padding: 0; position: static; float: none; display: inline; font-size: 1.0em; border: none; box-shadow: none; background: none; top: 0; left: 0; } #topnav { float: none; } #topnav-toggle { float: left; display: inline-block; margin: 0; padding: 0.6em 0.8em 0.7em; text-decoration: none; font-size: 0.8em; color: #fff; background: none; border: none; } #topnav-toggle:hover { cursor: pointer; background: rgba(0,0,0,0.2); } #topnav-toggle:after { float: left; margin: 0; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; display: inline-block; content: '\f419'; font: normal 16px/1 Genericons; text-decoration: inherit; vertical-align: text-bottom; } .top-navigation-menu { float: left; display: none; width: 100%; border-top: 1px solid rgba(255,255,255,0.08); } .top-navigation-menu a { float: left; display: block; padding: 0.7em 1em; text-decoration: none; font-size: 0.8em; text-transform: uppercase; margin-bottom: 1px; } .top-navigation-menu a:hover { background: rgba(0,0,0,0.2); } .top-navigation-menu li.current_page_item a, .top-navigation-menu li.current-menu-item a { text-decoration: underline; } /* Mobile Main Navigation */ /* Reset */ #mainnav, .main-navigation-menu, .main-navigation-menu li, .main-navigation-menu a, .main-navigation-menu ul, .main-navigation-menu ul a, .main-navigation-menu ul ul, .main-navigation-menu li ul ul { margin: 0; padding: 0; position: static; float: none; display: inline; font-size: 1.0em; border: none; box-shadow: none; background: none; top: auto; left: auto; } .main-navigation-menu li, .main-navigation-menu ul, .main-navigation-menu li ul ul, .mega-menu-item .mega-menu-content, .mega-menu-item .mega-menu-content .mega-menu-widget { position: static; display: block; left: auto; top: auto; clear: left; } #mainnav { margin: 1.5em 0; float: none; } #mainnav-toggle { display: block; margin: 0; padding: 1em; width: 100%; text-decoration: none; font-size: 1.0em; font-weight: bold; font-family: 'Carme', Tahoma, Verdana, Arial; text-align: left; line-height: 1.5; background: #f8f8f8; border: none; -webkit-box-sizing: border-box; -moz-box-sizing: border-box; box-sizing: border-box; } #mainnav-toggle:hover { cursor: pointer; background: #fff; } #mainnav-toggle:after { float: right; margin: 0; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; display: inline-block; content: '\f419'; font: normal 24px/1 Genericons; text-decoration: inherit; vertical-align: text-bottom; } .main-navigation-menu { width: 100%; display: none; border-bottom: 1px solid #e5e5e5; background: #fff; } .main-navigation-menu a { display: block; padding: 1.3em; text-decoration: none; font-size: 1.0em; font-weight: bold; border-top: 1px solid #e5e5e5; background: #fff; clear: left; } .main-navigation-menu a:hover { background: #f8f8f8; } .main-navigation-menu ul { float: left; padding: 1em 0; width: 100%; background: #f8f8f8; border-top: 1px solid #e5e5e5; -webkit-box-sizing: border-box; -moz-box-sizing: border-box; box-sizing: border-box; } .main-navigation-menu ul a { display: block; width: 100%; padding: 1em 1em 1em 2em; font-size: 0.9em; font-weight: normal; border-bottom: none; -webkit-box-sizing: border-box; -moz-box-sizing: border-box; box-sizing: border-box; } .main-navigation-menu ul a:hover { text-decoration: underline; } .main-navigation-menu ul li ul { float: left; width: 100%; -webkit-box-sizing: border-box; -moz-box-sizing: border-box; box-sizing: border-box; } .main-navigation-menu ul ul a { padding-left: 4em; } .main-navigation-menu ul ul ul a { padding-left: 6em; } .main-navigation-menu li.current_page_item a, .main-navigation-menu li.current-menu-item a { text-decoration: underline; } .main-navigation-menu li.current_page_item ul li a, .main-navigation-menu li.current-menu-item ul li a{ text-decoration: none; } .main-navigation-menu ul li.current_page_item a, .main-navigation-menu ul li.current-menu-item a { text-decoration: underline; } .main-navigation-menu .submenu-dropdown-toggle { float: right; display: block; margin: 0; padding: 1.15em 1.5em; } .main-navigation-menu .submenu-dropdown-toggle:hover { cursor: pointer; } .main-navigation-menu .submenu-dropdown-toggle:hover:before { color: #777; } .main-navigation-menu .submenu-dropdown-toggle:before { font-size: 20px; line-height: 1; font-family: 'Genericons'; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; -moz-osx-font-smoothing: grayscale; text-decoration: inherit; vertical-align: middle; content: '\f510'; color: #222; } .main-navigation-menu .submenu-dropdown-toggle.active:before { content: '\f50e'; } .main-navigation-menu ul .submenu-dropdown-toggle { padding: 0.55em 1.2em; } .main-navigation-menu ul .submenu-dropdown-toggle:before { font-size: 16px; } /* Mega Menu Styling */ .mega-menu-item .mega-menu-two-columns > li, .mega-menu-item .mega-menu-three-columns > li, .mega-menu-item .mega-menu-five-columns > li { width: 100%; } .mega-menu-item .mega-menu-four-columns > li, .mega-menu-item .mega-menu-six-columns > li { width: 50%; } } /* Tablets (portrait) | <800px */ @media only screen and (max-width: 50em) { #logo .site-title { font-size: 2.3em; } .archive-post.has-post-thumbnail .post-content, .commentlist .comment .comment-content { margin-left: 0; border-left: none; border-top: 1px solid #e5e5e5; width: 100%; } .archive-post.has-post-thumbnail .entry-meta-wrap, .commentlist .comment .comment-meta { float: none; width: 100%; padding: 0.8em; } .archive-post.has-post-thumbnail .entry-meta-wrap .wp-post-image { float: left; margin-right: 2em; max-width: 50%; } .archive-post.has-post-thumbnail .entry-meta { margin-top: 0.5em; } .comment-meta .commentmetadata p { display: inline; padding: 0 0.4em; } .page-title { font-size: 2.2em; } .entry-title { font-size: 2.0em; } .entry h1, .comment h1 { font-size: 2.2em; } .entry h2, .comment h2 { font-size: 1.8em; } .entry h3, .comment h3 { font-size: 1.4em; } .entry tr th, .entry thead th { padding: 0.2em 0.4em; } .entry tr td { padding: 0.2em 0.4em; } } /* Phablets (portrait) | <640px */ @media only screen and (max-width: 40em) { #wrap, #custom-header-image { padding: 1.5em 1.5em 0; } #featured-content-wrap { padding: 1.3em 1.3em 0; } #header-social-icons .social-icons-menu li a { padding: 0.9em; } #header-social-icons .social-icons-menu li a:before { font-size: 20px; vertical-align: middle; } .type-post, .type-page, .type-attachment, .widget { margin: 0 0 1.5em 0; } .page-title { font-size: 2.0em; } .entry-title { font-size: 1.8em; } .entry-title .subtitle { font-size: 0.6em; } #footer-social-icons { float: none; text-align: center; } #footer-social-icons .social-icons-menu li { float: none; display: inline-block; margin: 0 -2px 2px 0; } #footer #footer-text { float: none; text-align: center; padding: 0.7em 0 1.4em; } /* Mega Menu Styling */ .mega-menu-item .mega-menu-four-columns > li, .mega-menu-item .mega-menu-six-columns > li { width: 100%; } } /* Phablets (portrait) | <640px */ @media only screen and (max-width: 34em) { #featured-content .featured-post .featured-post-thumbnail { padding: 0.4em; } #featured-content .featured-post .featured-post-content { padding: 0.4em 0.6em; } #featured-content .featured-post .entry-title { font-size: 1.0em; } .archive-post.has-post-thumbnail .entry-meta-wrap .wp-post-image { max-width: 45%; margin-right: 1em; } .archive-post.has-post-thumbnail .entry-meta { margin-top: 0; } .comment-meta .commentmetadata p { display: block; padding: 0; } } /* Smartphones | <480px */ @media only screen and (max-width: 30em) { #wrap, #custom-header-image, #featured-content-wrap { padding: 1em 1em 0; } #header-social-icons .social-icons-menu li a { padding: 0.7em; } #header-social-icons .social-icons-menu li a:before { font-size: 16px; } .type-post, .type-page, .type-attachment, .widget { margin: 0 0 1em 0; } .page-title { font-size: 1.8em; } .entry-title { font-size: 1.6em; } .entry-title .subtitle { font-size: 0.65em; } #logo .site-title { font-size: 2.0em; } #topheader #header-search .search-form .search-field { min-width: 0; } .alignright, .alignleft { float: none; margin: 1em 0; } .entry-meta span, .postinfo span { display: block; } .postinfo .meta-comments { float: none; } } /* Smartphones | <480px */ @media only screen and (max-width: 28em) { .archive-post.has-post-thumbnail .entry-meta-wrap .wp-post-image { float: none; margin-right: 0; max-width: 100%; } .archive-post.has-post-thumbnail .entry-meta { margin-top: 1em; } #featured-content .featured-post .type-post { border: none; } #featured-content .featured-post .featured-post-thumbnail { padding: 0; background: #fff; border: none; } #featured-content .featured-post .featured-post-content { padding: 0.4em 0.1em; border: none; } #featured-content .featured-post .entry-title { font-size: 0.95em; } } /* Big Screens Navi Fix | >720px */ @media only screen and (min-width: 60.001em) { /* ensure #nav is visible on desktop version */ .top-navigation-menu, .main-navigation-menu { display: block !important; } .main-navigation-menu li.menu-item:hover a { background: #fff; } .main-navigation-menu li.menu-item:hover ul a:hover { background: #f8f8f8; } }

Crafting essays General Essay Writing Tips

Investigation guideline

PDFFor a inkjet printer-pleasant Pdf file variation with this guide, click here This Study Guideline addresses the topic of essay producing. The essay is made use of being a type of analysis in several academic disciplines, as well as being utilised in each coursework and tests. It’s one of the most popular concentrate for research consultations among individuals making use of Mastering Improvement Other helpful guides: What is critical reading through? What exactly is critical composing? Believed mapping; Referencing and bibliographies; Steering clear of plagiarism; The ability of editing and enhancing. An accumulation of Question lists is out there via the Learning Development web site. These lists recommend questions to inquire about of one’s writing once you are examining it. Why essays? To create a high excellent essay you want to prove your capability: to understand the complete job set with the subject; to determine, suitable content to study; to know and consider that materials; to select by far the most suitable content to consider within your essay; to put together an efficient case; and to arrive at a nicely-reinforced realization. The really need to use such a wide selection of scholastic capabilities is probably the principle purpose why the essay formatting is really widely used with teachers as an task. example of persuasive essay topics
The saying limit adds to the concern by demanding that every of these capabilities be revealed within a somewhat smaller variety of words. Creating incisive and very clear published operate within anything limit is an valuable skill by itself, which will be beneficial in a large number of aspects of daily life past university or college. Comments Superior, constructively vital suggestions can provide you with great guidance on ways to improve your essay writing. It truly is worthy of visiting to all the ideas and reviews you obtain, and looking to work to them.

Prevalent judgments provided to college students is that their essay:

doesn’t hold to the subject which was set up; has a terrible design; is also descriptive; will not have sufficient critical crafting. These criticisms focus on the 3 standard components of good essay producing: attending very closely towards the name; starting a pertinent design which will make it easier to demonstrate the development of one’s case; and employing important publishing as substantially as possible; with descriptive publishing becoming utilized exactly where needed, but held to a minimum. These components is going to be employed to provide a broad all round structure to this Study Guidebook. Attending tightly for the label Essentially the most essential beginning factor is usually to listen closely very carefully as to what the essay subject is letting you know. It is advisable to read every single solo message of it, also to press out as a lot guidance you can easily from the subject. Then you ought to program how you may answer to just about every solo factor on the subject. The direction given for you personally with the headline is openly attainable, and it is your most desirable clue to what exactly is expected within your essay. As being a teacher has mentioned (Creme and Lea, 1997 p41): ?When my pupils ask me about essay creating, you’ll find 3 major items of guidance i always let them have. One, answer the question. Two, remedy the query. Three, remedy the query.? This can be critical at the start out, but in addition throughout your creating, as it could be uncomplicated to drift absent and spend useful words out of your word reduce by creating fabric that can be exciting, but which can be not related for the subject establish.

The Micro Guidebook: Essay phrases described, and Concerns to inquire about interpreting essay titles may perhaps be valuable.

Brainstorming To start you out, as well as lower the chance of writer?s prohibit, a helpful workout should be to complete a ?brainstorm? of all of your suggestions in link with all the essay name. It may be an easy method of generating a good deal of progress really fairly quickly. It can be difficult and very tricky attempting to operate out exclusively within your thoughts find out how to handle an essay subject; requesting oneself inquiries including: What system should really I take advantage of? Precisely what are my principal things? What reading do I ought to do? Have I bought sufficient evidence? It may be significantly less difficult to organize all of your thought processes upon paper, ahead of you begin attempting to identify answers to these inquiries. Of these early stages of your thinking you may not be certain which of one’s ideas you want to stick to up and which you will be getting rid of. So, don?t feel you have to make that choice within your mind ahead of you write anything. Rather, you can actually catch all your ideas, in no certain buy, using a page or a couple of A4. When they are in that area it will likely be much easier for you personally to begin to assessment them critically and to find out where you need to concentrate your reading and message consuming. Breaking up it decrease then building it up Essentially, this really is what you might be undertaking within the essay method: busting ideas straight down, then constructing them up once more. You’ll want to: wear out the essay label into its component components, and consider conceivable techniques of dealing with them; function with all of these component parts, when you pick your studying and make pertinent information; build the essay utilizing the fabric you’ve collected; buying it; showing and speaking about it; and making it in a coherent case. All through this course of action, the essay title is the solitary immovable feature. You start there; you finish there; and anything in among needs to be placed in terms of that headline. Effective looking through All three of your procedures detailed earlier mentioned will advise your decisions regarding what you have to study for a distinct essay. If kept unexpected, the reading through stage can ingest up substantial degrees of time. Luckily, there is certainly capacity for creating proficiency in a number of techniques: making brilliant choices, depending on your initial arranging, about which providers to focus on, therefore you do not commit time reading through much less suitable, or even completely insignificant fabric; studying with a goal, to ensure that that you are searching out for particularly suitable material, as an alternative to having to pay equal focus to substance that is definitely significantly less pertinent; methodical note taking, to ensure that you file probably the most appropriate materials, and that you just have complete resource details (such as web page variety of immediate rates) of the substance you may end up using. Whilst a specific level of efficiency is desired, it is also fundamental to remain flexible sufficient to identify applicable and interesting ideas that you had not awaited. Crafting as considering You can actually make use of the producing procedure to assist you feel via, explain and create your earlier ideas about how you might answer back towards the headline which has been set up: ?you may not determine what you assume till you have published it down? (Creme And Lea, 1997 p115). Much like instructing, it’s frequently not until you are trying to communicate an argument as well as its proof which you discover exactly where the gaps are inside your awareness or discussion. So do not be scared of writing down your ideas just before they’re completely formed, or even in the ?right? get. Producing is an lively and constructive course of action; it is not simply a normal taking of one’s thoughts. It is for that reason valuable to go into the producing procedure planning on to create changes. The very first thoughts you write fail to must be aspect of the finished edition. Croping and editing your producing as you create your concepts is really a optimistic not just a undesirable procedure: the more you go across out, re-write down, and re-purchase, the higher quality your essay ought to grow to be. Starting a pertinent framework to assist your discussion All essays will need composition. The dwelling could be sturdy and apparent, or it might be unobtrusive and minimum but, within a beneficial essay, it will be there. Underpinning the structure might be the ?argument? your essay is generating. Once more this may be robust and apparent, or it may be practically imperceptible, however it must be there. In different subject matter spots, together with different styles of crafting, the word ?argument? might appear additional or much less suitable. Having said that, during those essays that seem to be exceptionally imaginative, unscientific, or personal, an argument of some type is getting manufactured. It really is the argument, and just how you choose to existing and back up your argument, which will influence your selection on tips on how to structure your essay. The essay design will not be an end in itself, but a method for an finish: the end would be the good quality on the debate. By setting up a pertinent composition, you will be making it considerably much easier for oneself to show an effective case. You can get numerous general properties that will help you get started to feel about your essay framework e.g.: chronological; thematic; by perspective; comparison. These is often useful beginning points, but you can expect to in all probability choose to operate having a more complex composition e.g.: overall chronological design; split up by comparisons based towards the elements from the headline; all round thematic structure; divided by sub-designs; all round comparison design; separated by circumstance. Together with these macro-components you can expect to very likely have to set up a mini-framework associated for the certain components you should concentrate on e.g.: proof / insurance plan / theory / apply / event studies / good examples / discussions. Water properties You could possibly feel that, for your personal unique essay, constructions such as these really feel too rigid. You could like to make a additional versatile or substance design. Perhaps a more suitable concept than ?structure? in all those instances may perhaps be ?pattern?, or ?impression?, or ?atmosphere?; however these blend into the industry of creative composing instead of essay creating. An example could possibly be that from symphony producing. The composers Haydn and Mozart, working in the 18th century, tended to write symphonies to fit dependably and closely within what was called ?symphonic form?. This lay out a pattern for the amount of movements within the symphony, as well as the basic system of creating inside every movement. The continuing demand for their function now demonstrates they clearly had been able to obtain a lot of curiosity and variety within that standard composition. Afterwards composers transported faraway from rigorous symphonic kind. Some retained a loosened url to it though other people deserted it fully, in favour more water designs. It might be exceptional, even so, to find a symphony that was without having composition or pattern of any type; it could likely not be adequate frequently to try out or to listen for. In the same way, a system of some type is likely needed for every essay, nevertheless revolutionary. Your choices on composition is going to be based on a combination of: the prerequisites of your section; the potential of your essay headline; and your individual choices and expertise. An iterative, not always a linear course of action The approach of essay planning and writing will not need to be considered a linear procedure, where each one stage is accomplished only when. It really is generally an iterative procedure i.e.: a course of action where sooner stages are duplicated after they is often improved during the lighting of subsequent operate. A attainable iterative process is: evaluate the title brainstorm pertinent concepts study surrounding the label, producing appropriate remarks cook a very first write analyse the subject once again critically evaluation the initial write inside the mild with this even more analysis read further to fill in gaps get ready ultimate draft critically update the very last write send in the finished essay. ?Helping your readers? This portion moving is inside insurance quotes as it is also the heading of section 8, pages and posts 80-92, in Barass (1982). Barass (1982 p80) definitely makes the easy but appropriate assertion, that: ?By making things quick for the viewers, you guide yourself to convey details and tips.? The teachers studying and marking your essays ought to have your aspect to consider. They will be looking through and marking countless, several university student essays. If one makes your discussion not easy to stick to, in order that they need to re-study a paragraph (or over) to try out to create feeling of what you might have published, you can trigger aggravation, and also make their task sluggish. Reasonably, it really is probable that they can can even figure out not to create that energy. It is your task to present your issue in ways that your market can adhere to; it is actually not your audience?s occupation to launch an exploration to find the factors you happen to be attempting to make. Your educators is not going to necessarily be looking for any perfect, cutting edge, one of a kind, specific essay; they will be highly prepared to read a pretty effectively-intended, perfectly-argued and properly-published essay. They may not need to take your essay to items. They might considerably quite take pleasure in browsing it, and also be happy because of the line of the case. Inside the words and phrases of any instructor: ?I?m looking for concentrate, for any tone of voice i always really feel confident with but not bored to death by – someone that realizes the location and will take me around the troubles within an unbiased, knowledgeable and interesting way.? Stott (2001 p 37) The introduction An effective launch is important. It might take part readers, and can also let them have assurance which you have believed meticulously concerning the title, contributing to how you’re about to deal with it. A valuable universal composition is to: start with a normal position regarding the central problem; reveal your knowing with the activity that has been fixed; demonstrate how you will strategy to manage the headline inside your essay design; create a website link for the primary level. It may perhaps be probable to utilize only one paragraph for your personal arrival, however it may very well autumn more quickly into two or more. You are likely to should adapt and expand this fundamental composition to match with your own field along with the correct task established. Right here is an demonstration of an intro for an essay named: Investigate and evaluate the nature and development from the tragic numbers of Macbeth and Doctor Faustus within their specific performs. Begin with a common level Dr Faustus and Macbeth are each represents that demonstrate their particular playwrights at the pinnacle of these positions. Show your comprehending from the job fixed When you compare the character on the two plays? individual heroes, each parallels and contrasts could be found. Demonstrate the way you program to cope with the subject Within the initially portion of this essay, the purpose from the heartbreaking hero will be regarded ? The 2nd portion of your essay will examine the type ? Last but not least, an assessment will likely be created of your development on the two ? Develop a website link to the initially level In inspecting the characters? heartbreaking qualities, a helpful starting stage is Aristotle?s definition of tragedy? However the intro looks in the starting up of the essay, you might want to write it to the end in the drafting approach: ?It is actually once you have completed an item of publishing that you simply can create it to the website reader.? (Creme And Lea, 1997 p115) Questions to inquire of the intro and realization could possibly be valuable. The center with the essay The center portion with the essay have to satisfy the assurances designed inside your release, and must service your final final thoughts. Breakdown to fulfill either or each of these necessities will inflame your audience, and definately will prove not enough self-critique and also of editing. The core part of your essay is exactly where the dwelling needs to do its perform, having said that explicit or implicit your chosen system may be. The structure you decide on must be 1 that will be most useful to you in handling the essay headline. This content of the middle piece will most likely consist of: ideas; information; proof; related referencing; and applicable examples. It will be characterised by: appropriate educational fashion; exciting and interesting writing; quality of believed and phrase, sensible obtaining of fabric, to aid as well as development of suggestions plus the improvement of case. Queries to inquire about of one’s essay content material could be beneficial. Verdict An effective conclusion is usually a beneficial tool. The goal should be to leave behind your viewer feeling that you simply have performed a great occupation. A universal construction that you simply may very well obtain valuable is: simple recap of the items you’ve got dealt with associated towards the essay label; guide to the larger concern; examination from the most important disputes; highlighting essentially the most crucial elements. The illustration below relates to the essay headline used over the former page. Brief recap The personalities of Macbeth and Faustus are incredibly identical in countless respects; as an example they both willingly comply with a pathway leading to their damnation. ? Reference point towards the larger sized problem The variations lie inside the development with the character types in what are basically two different types of plays. Assessment with the main disputes As has actually been demonstrated, the type of Macbeth has a nadir by which he ascends in the summary from the engage in. This can be consistent with Aristotle?s meaning of misfortune. For Faustus nevertheless, there’s no these types of ascension. This satisfies with all the style of your morality engage in: the erring Faustus should be observed to be humbled at his finish for those morality to become effective? Accentuating one of the most necessary aspects It is this strong part of morality in Doctor Faustus that eventually divides the two major character types. Queries to inquire of the arrival and summary may be valuable. Being a crucial article writer Following joining carefully to the title; and creating a valuable construction; another major element in the essay-producing course of action would be the assured use of ?critical writing?. The investigation guidebook What is critical writing? gives far more comprehensive assistance in this field, but it is actually useful to present a single portion from that guidebook under: The most feature attributes of important composing are: a definite and comfortable refusal to accept the results of other authors with no checking the misunderstandings and evidence they can present; a well-balanced discussion of explanation why the results of other authors could possibly be recognized or may well need to be addressed with care; a clear demonstration of one’s own personal evidence and discussion, creating your verdict; and a recognition from the restrictions inside your possess evidence, case, and verdict. With vital creating, you will be carrying out operate together with the proof you happen to be applying, by having a amount of testing and review. Stott (2001 p37) proposes that, ?Knowledge-revealing is definitely the regurgitation of knowledge in an essay. But information-transport is what?s vital: the capacity to manipulate that standard, uncooked content as a way to produce a convincing argument?. Inquiries to question about your degree of critical crafting could be beneficial. 1 approach to practise important publishing would be to make certain that you do not leave any description to talk for itself, if it really is component of your evidence and issue. If your estimate or bit of data is well worth like, then it?s also well worth presenting why you?ve provided it: ?Do not depart your readers to function out your consequences associated with a affirmation.? (Barass 1982 p80). An additional useful tool to back up crucial producing is definitely the section! Endeavor to provide 1 idea every section. Inside the section you could: bring in the concept/component of information/quotation/level of issue; provide the concept/part of information/insurance quote/stage of debate; discuss it – that is exactly where you display your essential pondering and producing. Another style would be to make use of a paragraph to show and identify a perception/piece of evidence/insurance quote/phase of argument, then to work with the up coming paragraph to clarify its significance. Editing At last, you ought to take a rest from your essay in order that you possibly can go back to it with fresh new sight for that closing enhancing. ‘Editing and confirmation reading through are not the icing around the cakes, as lots of people believe. They are totally crucial simply because it’s only during this period the fact that student can observe the argument hangs with each other, has a series and is also effectively-indicated. Croping and editing is both problematic and fundamental.? (Stott, 2001 p39) Yes, croping and editing is essential, but no it doesn’t need to be tough. You have accomplished most in the really hard work already within the studying, examining, and composing. Also, criticising your producing seems to become less difficult than developing it to begin with. The study information: The ability of enhancing plus the page: Questions to ask when croping and editing might be valuable. Display A instructor can become familiar with a being concerned amount about the excellent of one’s essay basically from the way it looks over the page. The lengths of paragraphs; the measures of phrases; the neatness of your resource collection; the balance of distance in between several portions; all offer insight into the sort of essay they’re intending to read. In general, consider ?short and straightforward?. Shorter terms tend to be far better much longer terms, unless there’s some particular vocabulary that you must consist of to show your skill. Limited to middle distance sentences are in most cases much better to for a longer period ones. And also over-long lines normally demonstrate that you’re not crystal clear in regards to the unique tips you will be creating. Not surprisingly, these are standard issues, also there could be some events, or some topic parts, exactly where very long lines are acceptable. Correct sentence structure and spelling are valuable. Persistently very poor sentence structure or spelling can grant the impression of deficiency of proper care, and shortage of clearness of thought. Reckless application of commas can affect the concept of a sentence. And inaccurate spelling and weak sentence structure can make for incredibly aggravating looking through for your individual marking it. The earlier sentence commenced with ?And?. This apply has become extensively acknowledged exactly where this makes fine sense. It really is nonetheless achievable that some trainers could possibly even now favor not to determine it. Review of tips The title is definitely the most important assistance you have got. The task ahead of time is nothing even more and absolutely nothing less than is expressed inside the name. While in skepticism about any factor of the reading for the essay, or relating to your producing, the first task should be to return back and talk to the essay headline. This is often amazingly valuable. It informs instantly: deciding on a browsing; the structure you ultimately choose for the essay; which content to add and exclude; what to do with all the product you employ; and find out how to bring in and conclude. A suitable and helpful design to aid the delivery of one’s result to the label is vital. Plan to take on an iterative method of planning, looking through, drafting, going over, planning, looking at, re-drafting, and croping and editing. Modifying is an important portion in the approach no suggested added. Work references Barass R, (1982) Pupils need to create: some good info on far better crafting in coursework and exams. Central london: Methuen. Creme P & Lea MR (1997) Writing at university: helpful tips for college students. Buckingham: Open College or university Touch. Stott R, (2001) The essay crafting procedure. Chapter 3 pp36-58. In Generating your instance: a realistic secrets for essay composing. Eds. Stott R, Snaith A, And Rylance R. Harlow: Pearson Instruction Reduced. Inquiries to inquire about of your resource listing may very well be valuable when reviewing your own reference point list.

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